- 1 Vegetable Gardening Tips
- 2 Top 3 Mistakes to Avoid When Growing Vegetables at Home
- 3 Methods of Planting Vegetable And Where These Methods of Planting are More Preferred
- 4 Prevention And Treatment Some Diseases in Cabbage (One of The Most Popular Vegetables)
- 5 Methods of Preserving Vegetables After Harvest
- 6 Indoor High Yield Vegetable Farms
- 7 Conclusion?
Vegetable Gardening Tips
With the costs of living to rise all the time, it may be possible to save money and increase your family’s health at the same time by growing vegetables in your backyard.
It’s a good idea to choose your favorite vegetables to grow and plan beds for early, middle of the season and late varieties.
Most vegetables require at least 6 hours of sunlight per day, some need 8. Some quick growers like lettuce and radish can be grown between the rows of plants that take longer to mature, like beet or corn, thus making full use of the area available.
Throughout dry periods, vegetable gardens need extra watering. Most vegetables benefit from an inch or more of water each week, especially when they are fruiting.
During the growing season watch for insect pests. If you discover a bug problem early it will be much easier, but be careful to not use pesticides once the vegetable is close to being picked unless it becomes an absolute necessity. Organic gardening is one healthy and environment-friendly option. Once you have reaped your crop, put the vegetable waste into your compost pile so that it can be recycled for next spring.
It is important to protect your vegetable garden from wild animals looking for a tasty treat. Make sure your garden is surrounded by a fence that will keep out dogs, rabbits, and other animals. The harm done by wandering animals during one season can equal the cost of a fence. A fence also can serve as a frame for peas, beans, tomatoes, and other crops that need support.
Protection is needed in order for your vegetable garden to yield a bountiful harvest. Hard work will pay dividends if necessary precautions have been made.
Top 3 Mistakes to Avoid When Growing Vegetables at Home
Currently growing vegetables at home has become the skills of the urban people, growing vegetables at home not only an entertainment but also producing fresh vegetables for meals. In some cases, you spend a lot of effort: during same week watering and take care of each vegetable, but they are not fast-growing as expected, the sad truth is that not all you have.
In this section, I will share some experience in growing vegetables:
1. The inappropriate watering for vegetables
Vegetables need water daily to ensure that enough moisture for vegetables doesn’t be wilted, however, if watered too much will make the waterlogging vegetables.
First check the drainage to make sure the soil is well-drained, watering the vegetables in the morning with showers. Afternoon slightly watering to help fresh vegetables.
If you forget to irrigate the vegetables a day, they will be wilted and must be watered 3-4 days to be recovered, the vegetables will grow slowly. In the case of heavy rain lasts some days without shielding measures also cause waterlogging or crushing leaves, vegetable crops susceptible to rot and damage.
2. Growing vegetables at home, you often have to face the problem of lacking the necessary fertilizer for vegetables
Choose soil or potting material for vegetables are very important. Many people usually use soil, which already available in their pots to grow vegetables so that the soil is the lack of nutrition.
So you should buy and reserve NPK fertilizer, compost earthworm fertilizer, Trichoderma…
For additional fertilizing for vegetables after each harvest, this will help the vegetables grow more new green leaves. You should follow the instructions on using fertilizer to grow vegetables safely and clean.
3. Select the location for the vegetables is not enough sunlight
Most vegetables need enough sunlight, especially leafy vegetables and fruit vegetables such as cabbage, spinach, herbs, peppers, pickled vegetables,…If that is missing, the vegetables grow more branches, the stem is thin and high, lack of green leaves.
Only a few types of vegetables can be grown under the shade of trees such as leaves guise, cinnamon taste, penny-wort,…But they require the soil must always moist.
On the other hand, the minimum height of the bottom tray (pots) must be between 15-20 cm for vegetable roots can develop long-term, if they are planted in shallow pots or trays, the vegetables will run out of nutrients soon and be stunted.
Methods of Planting Vegetable And Where These Methods of Planting are More Preferred
Choosing the right methods to cultivate vegetables effectively, seed saving and labor saving is the most concern of farmers who growing vegetables.
There are two ways to plant vegetables: the first way is sowing the seeds (direct sowing) and the second way is planting seedlings.
1. Direct sowing the seed method
This method usually applies to short-term crops such as cabbage, spinach, cucumber, corn, beans,…seed are sown directly into the bed surface, sow directly into the cavity, or sown directly on the tray (vegetable at home) that has been carefully prepared. Before sowing the seeds, they must be soaked in warm (45 C degree) or treated by drugs liquid to stimulate germination and pest control. After seed germination, seedlings can be pruned or additional planting to ensure the same density of plants.
2. The vegetable planting method of planting seedlings (Or Transplanting)
This vegetable planting method from seedlings that germinated from seeds. Seeds are sown in nursery beds or planted in polybags.
This method of vegetable cultivates usually applied to small seeded vegetables, seed grows slowly and weakly during the early stage, or for crops that shallow roots can regenerate strongly such as cabbage, penny proud, tomatoes, purple, chili, onion seed on the bed…then transplant the seedlings to the garden will shorten the growth period in the field, supporting the care and saving seeds.
You need to carefully sow land, good drainage, using just enough organic fertilizer. After showing you should finish coated with thin soi, ash or straw. With vegetables, nursery area only about 1-2% compared to the area of the mass production field. Pruning and removing bad plants or at a densely area, regular watering, should not use nitrogen fertilizers too much, pest discovered in incubating time to prevent spread to cultivated fields.
Planting vegetables on beds after hey spit or uprooted large enough to plant out. You should select the good plant, healthy, straight roots, pest-free. Od not spits and replant seedlings when it just rains, soil is too wet.
Prevention And Treatment Some Diseases in Cabbage (One of The Most Popular Vegetables)
The main factors affecting the crop pests: food source for plants (fertilizer), water, weather elements, Plant Varieties, sanitary conditions of the garden. Among the above-mentioned factors, the only weather factor that people can not take the initiative and overcome. However, you only need to actively resolve the remaining elements, then surely the prevention and remediation of harmful consequences by plant pests will be effective.
1. Rot with nodes (also known as pig skin disease)
The disease usually develops in a tight head stage to harvest stage. Disease cause by Rhizoctonia solani fungal. The outer leaves of cabbage rot and spreading to inside layers, especially fast when the weather is humid.
The fungal disease usually spreads from the ground for the plants, beginning as a small discolored spot, then decomposing into the fluid from top to bottom. In the early morning when the air humidity is high, we can see there’re layers of white silk covered the lesions.
- Note that planting cabbage with moderate density.
- Usually trimming away the leaves at the bottom to provide ventilation.
- Do not water in the cool evening, or don’t use nitrogen fertilizer in the tight head stage.
- When plants are diseased, they should be sprayed one of the following drugs: Benomyl 50 WP, Copper B 75 WP, Validacin 3L, Anvil 5 SC, Rovral 50 WP, Bonanza 100 SL, FL Appencarb super 50,…5-20cc (g) / 8 liters
2. Betel scum disease
It usually appears on cabbage growth stage on the tight head stage, the leaf tip or edge leaf edge become rotted, color change to dark red, and spread rapidly in the leaf veins. Diseases caused by Xanthomonas campest Ris PV. Campestris bacteria. The disease burn leaves and reduces cabbage weight. It usually causes damage from the leaf edge spreading into the center of leaves, lesions are usually triangular.
At the first, lesions have russet color and change to fawn later. If the weather is wet, the lesions are floppy, but if the weather is dry, the lesions become dry, brittle.
Prevention and treatment measures:
- If the field has a serious disease, you should rotate with other crops in about 3 years.
- Seed treatment with hot water 52 C degrees for 30 minutes before sowing.
- Regularly cut and burn infected leaves, trim the old leaves at the bottom.
- When the field is infected, you should not water the field in the cool evening.
- Spray one of these drugs if the cabbages are infected disease: Copper, Zinc 85 p, WP New Kasuran 16.2, Kasuran 50 WP, Kasumin 2 L, 50 WP Rovral ,Champion 77 WP, 15-30g (cc) / 8 liters, spraying 10 days/time.
3. Mushy rot (injection stubs) on cabbage
On cabbage, in the tight head stage, the leaves are wilted and don’t grip to the head, then the leaves fall, the core of cabbage black rot, diseases are caused by Ertvinia Carotovora var. Carotovora bacterial. The disease often attacks the roots or old leaves and spread into the body, it is difficult to detect, can be detected early through the expression that in the noon some leaves are wilted at the tip and fresh again in the afternoon. The lesions are small, water floppy, brown or black and then the bacteria enter into vascular of plant and rot the soft part of the cabbage, then gradually spreads upward and kill the leaves. Serious disease, all parts of cabbage rot with characteristic foul odor.
- Do not high-density planting during the rainy season. Avoid watering at evening, especially in the tight head stage.
- Crop rotation 2-3 years in the field if severely infected.
- Avoid hurting the cabbages, remove old leaves at the bottom and redress cuts, weeding, raised bed creates and make favorable conditions for plants. Uprooting and destruction of diseased plants to prevent spreading.
- When the disease occurs, spray one of the following drugs: Copper, Zinc 40g / 8 liters, WP New Kasuran 16.2, Kasuran 50 WP, Starner 20 WP 25- 35g / 8 liters, Champion 77 WP 20 -25CC / 8 liters, Kasumin 2L, Rovral 50 WP 15-20g / 8 liters.
Methods of Preserving Vegetables After Harvest
Vegetables contain 80-95% water so it is easily damaged (except the vegetables using trunk, tubers). Therefore, to keep freshness or reduce damage to the lowest level, the gardeners need to pay attention to the following techniques:
1. Avoid mechanical damage
In the process of harvesting and transport will cause collisions, bags, cans and other overlap or influence by dropping…These lesions increased respiration and transpiration leads to be wilted. In addition, the pathogenic microorganisms will invade quickly and vegetables will be rotten eased. Therefore, after harvest, especially when packaging and shipping products, growers should pay attention to minimize damage to vegetables.
2. Adjusting the environmental conditions
2.1. Adjusting the temperature
Need to avoid high temperatures during harvesting and preserving vegetables. Cooling is the most effective method.
If you don’t have refrigeration equipment, but want to avoid the disadvantage of high temperatures, you should apply such measures as:
- Harvest in the early morning or late afternoon on the day
- Avoid direct sunlight on the vegetable (keep vegetables in the shade).
- Vehicles transporting vegetables must be ventilated to remove heat from the respiration of the vegetables.
- Using white tarpaulin to cover the vegetables during shipping. Packing room roof need to be painted white to create the thermal radiation (heat reduction). And vegetables need to be transported as soon as possible if the car is not cooling.
2.2. Adjusting the relative humidity
The suitable relative humidity for vegetables is around 85%. So to do this, the floor of storage room needs to be kept wet, creating mist or vapor by spraying water through the vent fan or even spray on vegetables…
- Do not preserve ripe fruits and vegetables in the same room.
- Classify products, separating the damaged vegetables from the intact vegetables.
- Avoid keeping vegetables in the tight spaces or where there is smoke or vehicles gas.
3. Prevent disease and insects
Need to clean vegetable containers, trucks, storage room to prevent the entry and spread of infectious microorganisms that cause disease in vegetables.
- The vegetable that takes root and tuber should not wash until the market because washing vegetables will promote the nucleation and rot.
- Should not pack the vegetables when they still wet because they will create conditions for microorganisms to multiply quickly in hot weather.
Vegetables should be harvested at the right time (mature enough to put on the market, physiological maturity), not harvesting immature or overripe vegetables.
Indoor High Yield Vegetable Farms
People have gone through more than 10,000 years of agricultural history and knew a disaster such as a drought or floods can wipe out all of their efforts during the year. So adjust the growth rate crop and avoid disaster, that is what people are aiming for.
To realize this idea, Shigeharu Shimamura, a biologist has established a large farm growing vegetables in a plant in Japan. This system is tightly controlled by the LED system which is specially designed. This indoor vegetable farm is established in early July that is said to be capable of producing 10,000 lettuce plants per day, according to the Daily Mail.
This Vegetable farm has the same size as a half of a football field that was built in an old semiconductor factory belong Sony Corporation in Kashiwa, Chiba Prefecture, Japan. The farm uses 17,500 LEDs spanning over 18 growing shelves in 16 stories, the lights are used to simulate day and night.
By monitoring the photosynthesis process carefully and in detail, the system helps farmers grow lettuce plants faster than lettuce grows at the farm outdoors, the speed gain 2.5 times. It not only reduces 40% waste but also makes the yield soar.
The idea of fresh vegetables, grow faster, avoid disasters came to Shimamura when he worked in Miyagi prefecture in eastern Japan, where has been affected by the quake and tsunami disaster in 2011. The disaster wiped out crops and plants that leading to food shortages.
According to Shimamura, this indoor vegetable farm only uses a very small amount of water, about 1% compared to the farm outdoor. In addition, it also helps regulate the amount of minerals and vitamins in vegetables.
Scientists believe that the farm growing vegetables indoors as this will contribute effectively to solve the issues of food shortages in the world. Future plans have developed this kind of indoor farms in several countries, such as HongKong and Singapore.
Hope this little guide is helpful.
We wish you success in the self-plant and harvest fresh vegetables for your beloved family!